Radcliffe Takashi Onishi
Mar 28, 2018 · Last update 1 yr. ago.

Why did terrorism spread to Western Countries?

Why did terrorism spread to Western Countries?
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Due to a change in the Terrorist’s aims
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Terrorism didn’t spread to western countries, it came from them, and continues to...
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It's been caused by developed countries
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Due to a change in the Terrorist’s aims

Although suicidal attacks have occurred throughout history, is it the adoption of these strategies by fundamentalist Islamic terrorists, and the large scale targeting of civilian populations that has been so horrifying in recent years. Terrorism and suicide attacks have long distinct histories, but both started to become common and intertwined in the Middle East in the 1980’s. Factions such as Hezbollah, The Islamic Dawa Party, the Amal Movement, Kurdistan Workers’ Party, The Ba’ath Party and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party all used such tactics against enemy forces and civilians alike throughout the Middle East.

Al-Qaeda, an extremist terrorist group headed by Osama bin Laden had its origins in the CIA-funded mujahideen forces that fought Soviet forces in Afghanistan in the 80’s. The organisation carried out its first attack on American soil in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and its first suicide bombing in the 1998 bombing of US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya. Al-Qaeda failed in further attacks until September 11th 2001 when they orchestrated the most devastating suicide attack of history where the method of suicide bombing evolved, using a long haul airliner’s fuel as the explosive. Al-Qaeda members hijacked civilian flights and crashed them into the World Trade Centre in New York and The Pentagon in Washington. This event caused the death of nearly 3000 people directly, striking fear and changing the perception of terrorism worldwide.

Terrorists attacks and suicide bombings had both been increasing through the 90’s, but Al-Qaeda 2001 attacks had changed the prominence of terrorism and suicide attacks in the western world from then on for both citizens and terrorists, the terrible destructive power of terrorism had been unleashed. The terrorists that were fighting what they saw as an outside oppressive influences in their country, had bought this fight to the heart of their enemy’s soil and managed to cause an unthinkable amount of destruction. But it wasn’t until ISIS, a terrorist organisation aiming to start a global Islamic Caliphate, that the encouragement to use any method necessary to cause a similar style of destruction in the West was espoused in order to further the cause of terror in “the West”.

Al-Qaeda’s aim was to remove western influence from the Middle East, whereas ISIS adhere to a more extreme Salafi/Wahhabi form of global jihad that even views Muslims who disagree with their violent methods as infidels and justifies killing them. Terrorism has evolved alongside suicide bombings and modern terror tactics, and the move of Middle Eastern terrorist groups targeting the US and Western Europe is due to an evolution in those groups objectives of a global caliphate. This change in outlook has justified even more such groups declaration of jihad against western nations and allowed the terrorist attacks of groups like ISIS to become more and more extreme.

express.co.uk/news/world/644304/ISIS-Islamic-State-Destroy-West-Terrorist-Syria-Iraq pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/front/special/sala.html

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Daniel Halliday
May 7
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DH edited this paragraph
Terrorists attacks and suicide bombings had both been increasing through the 90’s, but Al-Qaeda 2001 attacks had changed the prominence of terrorism and suicide attacks in the western world from then on for both citizens and terrorists, the terrible destructive power of terrorism had been unleashed. The terrorists that were fighting what they saw as an outside oppressive influences in their country, had bought this fight to the heart of their enemy’s soil and managed to cause an unthinkable amount of destruction. But it wasn’t until ISIS, a terrorist organisation aiming to start a global Islamic Caliphate, that the encouragement to use any method necessary to cause a similar style of destruction in the West was espoused in order to further the cause of terror in “the West”.

Terrorism didn’t spread to western countries, it came from them, and continues to...

Although modern terrorism was arguably first established by the IRA, a new form of Fundamentalist Islamic Terrorism mutated in the Middle East and has spread back to the West. Arguably Islamic terrorism spread to Europe and America is a reaction to the repeated failure or western foreign policy, and is made more complicated by the injection of disillusioned young rebellious western born Muslims. The internet has allowed a new generation of extremists to be radicalised in the West, to carry out attacks there for what used to be foreign causes. So just as terrorism first came from the West, terrorists are now being born there, sometimes trained in war zones and exported to spread that fighting back on the doorsteps of the perceived worst foreign agitators, the West.

The word 'terrorism' goes back to the 18th century with the French Revolution, but terrorism is thought to has a long history going back at least to the Sicarii Jewish Zealots of the Roman Empire. But it wasn’t until the late 19th century that Irish Republicans started carrying out modern terrorist attacks in England, using dynamite. These tactics were repeatedly involved in wars and terrorism alike for the next century with civilian targets becoming increasingly common.

The Fenian Brotherhood were an Irish Republican organisation that started in the United States in 1858, combining Catholicism with militant Irish nationalism with the intention for revolution in British ruled Ireland. Members of the group were arrested while organising an armed uprising in 1867, which led to a rescue attempt at London's Clerkenwell Prison involving a bomb that killed 12 people. This quickly led to the Fenian dynamite campaign, a series of public bombings that carried out in Britain that targeted government, police and military from 1881 -1885. The set the stage for campaigns of terrorism both in Ireland and worldwide for the next nearly hundred years.

Presently relations between Ireland and Britain have become less violent through through a peace process that led to the Good Friday agreement. But as terrorism evolved in other parts of the world it was eventually British and French-born Muslims, disillusioned with their countries foreign policy that made easy targets for online grooming by foreign terrorist organisations. This process imported this western export back to The West as these terrorists began to orchestrate attacks and murders, and defect to terrorist organisations such as ISIS in the Middle East.

bostonglobe.com/opinion/2015/02/11/french-british-colonialism-bred-root-terrorism/GSaZbcZuqXtbRE9CiwWPcO/story.html terrorism-research.com/history/early.php theirishstory.com/2012/02/13/one-skilled-scientist-is-worth-an-army-the-fenian-dynamite-campaign-1881-85/#.UkniH3-tbXQ

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Daniel Halliday
May 7
Approved
DH edited this paragraph
The word 'terrorism' goes back to the 18th century with the French Revolution, but terrorism is thought to has a long history going back at least to the Sicarii Jewish Zealots of the Roman Empire. But it wasn’t until the late 19th century that Irish Republicans started carrying out modern terrorist attacks in England, using dynamite. These tactics were repeatedly involved in wars and terrorism alike for the next century with civilian targets becoming increasingly common.

It's been caused by developed countries

In Middle Eastern countries, border lines were drawn by former colonial powers, regardless of ethnicity or religion. Outside forces have then backed leaders that have utilised violence and corruption to maintain power in these ethnically, religiously or tribally diverse places. This can be seen as far back as Britain’s post First World War backing of Abdullah I of Jordan and Faisal I of Iraq, or again during the Cold War with the Soviet Union installing Babrak Karmal in Afghanistan. To further complicate the situation these former colonial powers have then subsequently funded rebels that have risen up to fight these oppressive regimes.

Why else have western countries sent weapons and funds to terrorist groups? Is it because developed countries have been using local armed groups to their advantage, in order to take control of natural resources, in every war in the Middle East? Or could it be the overly simplified narrative, that neglects the nuances present in complex violent situations, and instead tries to export Western influence as a fix all solution to diplomatic and social problems around the world?

Either way, as a result of the actions of developed countries, terrorism has evolved and expanded. And as a result of these terrorist groups expanding they have also become able to sustain themselves economically, either through illegal trade (such as opium in Afghanistan) or occupation of resource rich areas (such as oil fields in Syria). This is allowing them to further their cause, rely less on international support, and thus further the role of terrorist attacks in the world.

When we consider the history of modern terrorism, especially extremist Islamic terrorism, it’s important to remember how it has evolved and where it has evolved from. Most groups involved have been at least historically funded or armed by former colonial powers as they carried out Cold War or neo-colonialist foreign policy. But it is the continued support received by terrorist groups even from the widespread, sometimes westernised, disenfranchised diaspora of these former colonies that has really caused these terrorist activities to spread to the West. This is a problem with colonial roots, made worse by the ongoing marginalisation of generations of post-colonial migrants.

newstatesman.com/politics/2014/08/why-britain-created-monarchies-middle-east wbur.org/hereandnow/2017/06/13/colonialism-europe-terror-attacks newrepublic.com/article/118409/mideast-unravelling-and-theres-not-much-us-can-do

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Daniel Halliday
May 7
Approved
DH edited this paragraph
When we consider the history of modern terrorism, especially extremist Islamic terrorism, it’s important to remember how it has evolved and where it has evolved from. Most groups involved have been at least historically funded or armed by former colonial powers as they carried out Cold War or neo-colonialist foreign policy. But it is the continued support received by terrorist groups even from the widespread, sometimes westernised, disenfranchised diaspora of these former colonies that has really caused these terrorist activities to spread to the West. This is a problem with colonial roots, made worse by the ongoing marginalisation of generations of post-colonial migrants.
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