Daniel Halliday
Feb 27 · Last update 14 days ago.

What are the underlying issues behind the conflict in Kashmir?

A suicide attack on the 14th Feb 2019 has prompted a further upsurge in violence and aggressive rhetoric between India and Pakistan. Tensions have grown as India’s openly plans to isolate Pakistan diplomatically, which quickly escalated to cross border fire, and then the disputed shooting down of two Indian Air Force jets, or possibly one Indian and one Pakistani Jet on 27th Feb 2019. What are the historical or underlying issues that cause continuing conflict over this region?
Stats of Viewpoints
Historical and on-going political interference/corruption
1 agrees
0 disagrees
Chinas minor role and the region’s resources
0 agrees
0 disagrees
Repeated terrorist attacks against Indian security forces
0 agrees
0 disagrees
India’s failure to prosecute human rights violations
0 agrees
0 disagrees
Both sides’ violent crackdown on autonomy protests
1 agrees
0 disagrees
Death of Burhan Wani
1 agrees
0 disagrees
A long fight for independence
1 agrees
0 disagrees
Role of the media
1 agrees
0 disagrees
Historical authoritarian rule and failed colonial diplomacy
1 agrees
0 disagrees
Viewpoints
Add New Viewpoint

Historical and on-going political interference/corruption

Historically speaking the armed insurgency in Kashmir between various separatist groups and the government of India, which is at the heart of the unrest in the region, was a direct response to the 1987 rigging of the Jammu Kashmir elections. In the run up to the 1987 election there had been a massive effort and political push in the Kashmir Valley from a wide range of groups to form a significant regionalist opposition, which culminated in the forming of the Muslim United Front. But despite earning a massive victory for a new party, earning 31% of the vote, the new party earned just 4 seats in Kashmir’s legislative assembly. Allegations of electoral fraud then emerged as the country descended into frustration and radicalisation, the first terror attack being staged by the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front in July of the same year.

books.google.co.jp/books?id=reiwAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA274&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Sep 30
Created

Chinas minor role and the region’s resources

China currently administers the remaining 20% of the Kashmir region not held by Pakistan or India, the mostly uninhabited areas of the Shaksgam Valley and the Aksai Chin region fall under Chinese control due to their strategy importance. This only complicates the already complex situation further as China’s direct confrontations with India in a wider range of border disputes have made international relations here strained to the point of being unworkable. However it’s water, and namely control of the Indus River as a resource that is the main underlying reason that no side wants to address in this conflict, but it remains the biggest hindrance to independence in the region, all side being happier to treating the situation as one of terrorism or national defence than of the strategic importance it represents.

usip.org/publications/2017/02/chinas-kashmir-policies-and-crisis-management-south-asia indiandefencereview.com/news/kashmir-india-china-pakistan-triangular-conflict economist.com/banyan/2010/08/29/the-chinese-connection

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Sep 30
Created

Repeated terrorist attacks against Indian security forces

Jammu and Kashmir is in a massively destabilised condition as the divided region is subject to on-going Islamic terror attacks that are mostly aimed at Indian security forces but claim the lives of many Indian soldiers, police officers and civilians indiscriminately, while injuring countless others. India has tried to control the situation for years to no avail, and has now been forced to step up measures in order to exert control over their sovereign territory and attempt to stem terrorism in the region, saving lives of both Indian civil servants and Kashmiri residents alike. This year has already seen one of the deadliest terror attacks in years when a suicide car bomb was used in Pulwama to kill 40 people, however hundreds of deaths occur on average each year from similar attacks. Such attacks are also raising tensions with India’s nuclear neighbour Pakistan, who India blames for fomenting militancy amongst Islamic terrorists in the region, all this has left the Indian government little choice but to launch a serious response to terrorism in the region.

apnews.com/a7ede33c10d84d1f9a09b4ad1015db87 bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-47302467

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Sep 30
Created

India’s failure to prosecute human rights violations

One of the major contributors to civil unrest in Jammu and Kashmir is the many human rights abuses and atrocities committed by Indian security forces; these are one of the main factors that encourage an aggressive push for autonomy. The Indian Army, Police Force and Border Security Forces have been implicated in a large-scale of severe abuses such as rape, violence, torture, forced disappearances, extra-judicial killings, and use of pellets to blind protestors. The Modi Government’s recent ramping up of rhetoric and passing of the disastrous Reorganisation Act is thought to have been a publicity stunt in the run up to the May election, with Modi’s bully posturing an attempt to come across as a powerful government. However this new era in Jammu and Kashmir is likely to just give rise to further human rights abuses.

hrw.org/reports/2006/india0906/2.htm#_Toc144362271 theguardian.com/world/2010/dec/16/wikileaks-cables-indian-torture-kashmir thenews.com.pk/print/522314-kashmiris-resolve-gets-stronger-as-modi-s-madness-multiplies

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Sep 29
Created

Both sides’ violent crackdown on autonomy protests

India and Pakistan are both ignoring autonomy being the main issue here, both sides use it and talk of it less as a fight for independence but more of a 'tough man' rivalry between countries. Both sides often “crackdown” but neither side has made any steps towards a resolution to the situation in Jammu and Kashmir. There’s a need for prolonged demilitarisation and multilateral talks, but both sides are locked into a battle of violent rhetoric while completely overlooking the very necessary issue of Kashmiri Independence.

aljazeera.com/news/2019/03/india-charges-kashmiri-pro-independence-leader-crackdown-190307164352108.html

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
May 3
Created

Death of Burhan Wani

Burhan Wani was a widely popular Kashmiri militant who’s use of social media normalised, revolutionised and modernised militancy in Kashmir, and his death at the hands of Indian security forces in 2016 led to a fierce resurgence of violence in Kashmir. Wani became a symbol of indigenous youth-led armed resistance as he went viral on social media, making the struggle in Kashmir relatable to young people in the region. However his death, and the massive violent reaction to it, is thought to have changed the very nature of insurgency in the country, taking it from an ailing analogue resistance movement to a state of a universal identity-forming popular struggle.

outlookindia.com/website/story/how-burhan-wani-changed-the-definition-of-militancy-in-kashmir/313209

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
May 3
Created

A long fight for independence

The very basis for the cause of the conflict in Kashmir is the struggle for independence of an Islamic region from an increasingly nationalistic, majority Hindu, state of India. Opinion polls have shown that “support for independence varies between 74% to 95% in its various districts” [1] of the Kashmir valley, according to Chatham House, an international affairs think tank. This is however being largely ignored by a Indian central government that is gearing up for re-election, preferring to utilise situations such as these to appear a strong to the rest of the country by pushing a Hindu nationalist agenda.

aljazeera.com/news/2019/03/india-pakistan-crisis-includes-war-facts-alternative-facts-190309060825203.html

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Mar 21
Created

Role of the media

Many of vast number of multilingual news networks in India are reporting completely different news about the same events often prompting aggressive discourse before politicians even have the time to react. Meanwhile fake posts on social media are promoting violence against those in India that are not seen as patriotic enough to support the harsh nationalist rhetoric many media organisations engage in, some going as far as directly calling for war with Pakistan. The media in India are pushing an increasingly extreme narrative of hateful nationalism to vie for viewership in a booming media industry; however this is simply provoking people and creating a frenzied response around these issues. youtube.com/watch?v=1v_vWmDaUEU aljazeera.com/programmes/listeningpost/2016/10/india-pakistan-media-fire-161009071925158.html

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Mar 9
Created

Historical authoritarian rule and failed colonial diplomacy

The history of the Kashmir region undeniably laid the foundation for the struggle in the region today. With a rich history of Hindu, Buddhist, and Islamic control gave rise to a distinct culture in Kashmir, but many oppressive empires eventually took control of the region, with the Afghan empire, and then Sikh empirical rule eventually giving way to the British East India Company. The British sold Kashmir to Hindu leader Raja Gulab Singh in the late 19th century and a system of slave labour, heavy taxation and state violence was established. Although there are numerous factors affecting the situation in Jammu and Kashmir it is clear the struggle for freedom, the lack of self-determination and violence against the indigenous people is an issue with a very long history.

Agree
Disagree
Latest conversation
Daniel Halliday
Feb 27
Created
Translate