Daniel Halliday
Sep 22 · Last update 1 mo. ago.

What keeps Somalia in such a state of disrepair?

Occupying nearly the entirety of the Horn of Africa’s coastline, Somalia seems in the perfect geographic location to be a stable and prosperous country. However Somalia has been without a functioning government for 20 years, and massive problems of terrorism and piracy famously plague the country. What is the history of Somalia’s political situation? How did the country fall into this state of disrepair? What allows this to continue so tragically?
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Terrorism
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Failed Dictatorship and Protracted Civil War
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Terrorism

Al-Qaeda’s involvement in Somalia is thought to have begun as early as 1992, shortly after the fall of dictator Siad Barre, a tumultuous time for Somalia with the beginning of state failure, civil war and United Nations intervention. Senior member of al-Qaeda are thought it have participated in training and fighting in the infamous Battle of Mogadishu depicted in the 2001 movie ‘Black Hawk Down’. But it wasn’t until the formation of Somalia’s homegrown terrorist network that the country became a hub for international terrorism.

Following the second Battle of Mogadishu, al-Shabab is thought to have splintered from the armed militia loyal to the Islamic Courts Union, a union of various regional Sharia courts that opposed Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government. The group has undergone several rifts, giving rise splinter groups and leadership assassinations, but has continued with a dedication to jihad, and sworn allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2012. The country's civil war over the years has seen this terror network thrive and build links with other African terror organisations such a Boko Haram, the growth of al-Shabab has seen Somalia descend into an international terrorist safe haven, further destabilising the country and indeed the region.

longwarjournal.org/archives/2011/12/shabaab_leader_recou.php# counterextremism.com/countries/somalia ctc.usma.edu/reigniting-rivalry-islamic-state-somalia-vs-al-shabaab web.archive.org/web/20090203130924/http://www.somaliweyn.org/pages/news/Oct_08/28oct16.html

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Daniel Halliday
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DH edited this paragraph
Following the second Battle of Mogadishu, al-Shabab is thought to have splintered from the armed militia loyal to the Islamic Courts Union, a union of various regional Sharia courts that opposed Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government. The group has undergone several rifts, giving rise splinter groups and leadership assassinations, but has continued with a dedication to jihad, and sworn allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2012. The country's civil war over the years has seen this terror network thrive and build links with other African terror organisations such a Boko Haram, the growth of al-Shabab has seen Somalia descend into an international terrorist safe haven, further destabilising the country and indeed the region.

Failed Dictatorship and Protracted Civil War

The 1969 presidential assassination and military coup turned Somalia to a Marxist-Leninist revolutionary state, as General Siad Barre pushed authoritarianism, Islamic social principles and communism, while nationalising and modernising the state, instigating large scale social programs. However following the Ogaden War with Ethiopia Somali’s economy collapsed, drought worsened into a famine, and public sentiment turned against Barre as he responded by becoming increasingly authoritarian. In 1988 clans took up arms against Barre, he responded by massacring his own people causing greater resistance and forcing him into exile as the country fell into a deep civil war. As rival clans, warlords and eventually extremist groups vied to fill the power vacuum left by General Barre the country fell deeper into chaos, Somalia was without internationally recognised government for 20 years, as the country became a failed state.

countrystudies.us/somalia/24.htm countrystudies.us/somalia/27.htm countrystudies.us/somalia/28.htm

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Daniel Halliday
Sep 22
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