The redirection of the Chilean economy under Pinochet, carried out in collaboration with the CIA, essentially gave away profitable state enterprises to big businesses, while repressing labour, and introduced repressive corporate socialism despite the rhetoric framework put forward by Milton Friedman disciples. While much of the critique of this period focuses on the brutal arbitrary detentions, torture, murder and exile of union leaders and government opposition under the Pinochet dictatorship, the economic reforms were just as damaging to Chilean society. Much of the "miracle" of the neoliberal growth of the late 70s and early 80s was based on foreign debt and financial speculation, forming a bubble that burst in 1982 leading to a 14% drop in GNP, 30% unemployment and a spirally debt crisis as the government backed the private companies who now held national debt. So despite preaching about free markets the Pinochet government, backed up by the Chicago Boys and the IMF, disparaged state intervention in the economy but encouraged the bail out private debtors. Chile's miracle was as much of a lie as neoliberalism's free markets are.