Estonia and Switzerland are the only countries, out of all the countries that have started to implement electronic voting in some way, to have conducted surveys to determine the multifaceted effects electronic voting has on the voting process. These studies have shown that, far from making the voting process fairer and open to all; electronic voting seemed to yield a disproportionate number of younger, richer, more tech savvy voters. Also the total voter turnout seems to be unaffected or actually decrease when voting is electronic. It seems electronic voting, far from alleviating problems from the voting system, seems to actually generate new ones.
A study published by the Central European University in Hungary analysed the 2007 Estonian parliamentary elections that utilised remote electronic voting, giving voters the choice between a traditional ballot or an internet poll. The paper demonstrated despite the method being put in place to increase voter turnout, it had little effect on the overall turn out, with the vast majority of voters being the same politically engaged citizens that cast votes normally. However, the study also found that during the 2007 election there was also a higher voter participation in high income areas and from individuals with a formal education, indicating a greater digital divide following the introduction of electronic voting.