D H
Apr 16 · Last update 21 days ago.

Why is Artsakh stuck between two states?

The Caucasus Mountains has been a heavily conquered territory, the region’s history caught between the Persian, Russian and even Ottoman spheres of influence. But since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 territorial disputes have persisted here into the present, and the most tense by far is that of Nagorno-Karabakh, a region that declared itself the independent Republic of Artsakh in 2006. However Artsakh remains unrecognised as an independent state by any other sovereign state in the world. How has the regions history left the people of Artsakh stuck between being a nation and a region, while also being stuck between the two neighbouring states of Azerbaijan and Armenia?
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A part of Azerbaijan ruined by failed Soviet diplomacy
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A second unrecognised Armenian state
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A part of Azerbaijan ruined by failed Soviet diplomacy

After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War, British troops occupied Karabakh installing Azeri government figure Khosrov bey Sultanov as the governor-general of Karabakh and Zangezur. However it wasn’t until the Stalinist Soviet Union carried out a Sovietisation policy of Transcaucasia that the seeds of the modern Nagorno-Karabakh conflict were sown. In a move of failed diplomacy Stalin promised Armenia and Turkey that Karabakh would become part of Armenia and Azerbaijan respectively, Stalin established the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR on 7 July 1923. The conflict was put on hold until both nations achieved independence in 1991, with Nagorno-Karabakh breaking away from Azerbaijan in a war that killed 30,000, fighting has broken out periodically ever since with a 1994 ceasefire agreement doing little to quash this conflict.

aljazeera.com/news/2020/10/2/armenia-says-ready-to-work-with-mediators-for-karabakh-ceasefire theguardian.com/world/2020/oct/01/nagorno-karabakh-belongs-to-azerbaijan npr.org/2020/10/02/919467165/nagorno-karabakh-turkeys-support-for-azerbaijan-challenges-russian-leverage

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D H
Oct 6
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A second unrecognised Armenian state

The majority of Artsakh are of Armenian descent and the region is widely seen as a de facto part of Armenia, but one Armenia itself is reluctant to claim. This region was raised to the ground once in 1920 in a war between Azerbaijan and Armenia over the territory, and the Red Army failed to protect the people or solve the despite when it handed the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast to Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. Another conflict battered the region again from 1991-4 following the dissolution of the USSR. The issue of the failure to recognise Artzakh is mostly a historical administrative error on the part of outside powers, but to avoid international stigma as the aggressor in the situation Armenia cannot claim the region despite Armenian’s being the ones that fought Azerbaijan from 1991 to 1994 and the majority of the population being Armenian. Leaving Artsakh hopelessly stuck between the two states.

aei.pitt.edu/cgi/users/login?target=http%3A%2F%2Faei.pitt.edu%2F707%2F1%2Focc32.pdf

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D H
Apr 16
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