Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) can have positive or negative effects, like any fund how effective they are depends on how the money is spent, and sometimes it could even lead to a country getting poorer. Countries such as the US oppose SWFs as they may lead to international protectionism, but they can also cause corruption, obsessions with budget balancing, and a lack of political courage as over-reliance on such schemes can prevail. The most popular argument for sovereign wealth funds is to fund innovation, but not all research and development investments make a country richer, look at massive projects that failed, e.g. Concord. In addition to transparency concerns SWFs raise moral ones also, some SWF investments may exacerbate climate change, war or human rights abuses, for example Norway's SWF has invested billions in arms, torture and surveillance technology, despite their SWF having rules to stop this from happening.