It is at the most foundational level the racist and failed law enforcement that leads to the massive failure in addressing the issue of missing and murdered Native American women, but these attitudes are pervasive and exist both culturally, politically and legally as well. White men perpetrate the majority of attacks against indigenous women, but due to loopholes in federal law Tribal police cannot arrest non-Natives, even within Reservation territory. The problem is political also as in recent years US Congress failed to pass H.R. 1585 - the Violence Against Women Reauthorisation Act of 2019, it passed the House but it was not even taken up by the Republican majority Senate.
It is structural issues caused by bureaucratic loopholes and jurisdictional gaps that perpetuate the fact that one third of indigenous women are sexually assaulted, and two thirds of these attacks are from other races outside their community, yet their is near impunity for the criminals responsible. The larger culture in America utilises native culture in demeaning ways, often with violent or sexual undertones, a dismembered Native American head as football mascot, sacred and spiritual clothing in highly sexualised areas such as music festivals and catwalk runways. All of which help build a hyper-sexualised image in the American psyche and worsen the crisis that is sexual assault against native women.